The primary purpose of these guidelines is to keep CONSCIOUSNESS-.
RAISING from becoming one of the other groups. These are not to be
construed as rigid rules. Any or all may at some time serve the goals
best by being broken or ignored.
1. No men allowed at womens CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING
SESSIONS this year; maybe next year. Separate male groups are probably
possible if they are initiated by males.
2. Neutral ground for a meeting place is preferable so that
one woman does not have to play hostess. It is better not to be distracted
with the problems of refreshments, so that 2 or 3 hours may be a time
limit. The group can chip in for whatever expenses are involved but
the amount should be selfdetermined so that no woman is excluded
for financial reasons. Remember, the wife of a wealthy man may feel
financially strapped when she has not a resolved within herself whether
the money is hers or his. Serious CONSCIOUSNESS RAISING groups require
babysitting facilities nearby so that mothers of young children need
not be excluded. A woman with an infant should not be discriminated
against and the group could chip in for a baby sitter (perhaps the
3. Let any woman in. Do not be exclusive Weve been in
purdah too long. Women have too long socialized in hierarchical, competitive,
compartmentalized groupings. Women are women. all enduring
the sexism of patriarchy and the oppression that is part of being
a woman in a sexist society. CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING must never
be a closed club.
4. Try to give everyone a chance to speak. Use positive encouragement
such as taking turns or supplying each member of the group with several
poker chips which are tossed into the center of the circle each time
she speaks. Be particularly attentive to the member who speaks least,
since we want to encourage selfexpression in all. Furthermore,
one learns and understands both be speaking and by listening. We women
have not had enough attentive, respectful audiences in our lives.
5. CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING sessions should not have an authoritarian
leader. If there is a leader or leaders at all, their function is
to guide the group along these guidelines. There should not be a discussion
leader who determines the content or is presumed to be the final authority.
This is not to say that some person at some time may not have more
information of understanding of the topic under discussion. If so,
listen but if it is always the same person or persons, do something
to increase participation of everyone (e.g. poker chip method).
6. Utilize a protective structure, such as these guidelines,
in an effort to free all participants rather than freeing only some
women at the expense of others. But do not hold to structure rigidly.
Any or all of these suggestions may not apply to every group at any
7. Speak about the experience of being a woman. Do not stray
to topics which are unrelated. Although we are always women, not all
our experiences bear direct or obvious relation to this fact.
8. The atmosphere should be sufficiently flexible to permit
members to introduce topics of importance to them.
9. On the other hand, having specific topics for discussion
sometimes helps beginners to focus on what had been difficult for
a woman to look at, but they should not be allowed to restrict the
flow of content. CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING is not educational
in that there are no exams or competitive aims. CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING
is educational" in that it provides the support of other
women and their recognition of us and of what we have to say. Some
women who are very knowledgeable about the facts of sexism, who are
activists for the womens cause, and who may even be effective
spokeswomen, sometimes miss this golden opportunity which we women
of the Seventies haveto be given respect by associates,
a luxury enjoyed by few women throughout history. It is understandable
that they may not feel they need CONSCIOUSNESS RAISING, but
when they come, they gain as much as we are gaining. Of course, if
they see themselves as experts, it will take them longer to experience
the value of relating their own experiences to those of others.
10. We speak about our own thoughts, our own feelings, and
our own experiences rather than what we think about others thoughts,
feelings, and experiences. We are an authority on ourselves. It seems
something of a copout to say, I saw a woman who told me
that she decided... instead of, I decided.... We
say what we think about things as openly and honestly as we easily
can. We also recognize that there are various levels of consciousness.
If a comment would not be understood by others at a certain time,
it may be better to wait than to rush too fast. On the other hand,
we sisters grow very fast once we begin.
11 Refrain from criticizing others. As our calloused nerve
endings are exposed, we may become stronger out in society, but more
vulnerable to our sisters. There is inevitable pain in the process
of seeing what we have previously not allowed ourselves to see. Understand
the greater need for support during this process.
12. While we are trying to discover our own sexism and the
sexism which has victimized us, we try to avoid the traps of classism,
racism, and ageism. When younger exclude older, or older refer
to younger in putdown terminology (such as referring to 20 year
olds as young girls) we are letting another ugly ism creep in.
13. Never give advice, though we can give our reactions. This
sounds contradictory, and sometimes the line may be hard to draw,
but advice is a conclusion and conclusions are hazardous without all
the data. We cannot really put ourselves in another womans position.
It is one thing to say, I think that if I were in your situation,
I would feel like... and quite another to say, I think
you ought to...
Restrain impulses to act negatively toward another sister. CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING
is not encounter. We are analyzing ourselves and our roles in society,
but not each others Criticism inhibits and makes it more difficult
to realize the goal of increased selfunderstanding. The CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING
experience should be a positive place where one gains support, not
a hostile environment to be feared.
15. Enjoy the different styles of the women in the CONSCIOUSNESS
RAISING group. We are trying to get rid of the old value of sameness.
Some of us are emotional, some softspoken. Let each be whatever
she is at the moment. She may change next week. If she does, enjoy
16. Exert no pressure on anyone either to say anything or do
anything. Even the asking of questions should be limited to questions
of clarification. If she wants to tell, What did you do then?
she will. Be sensitive to the possibility that to ask may be to pressure.
17. One sometimes edits ones reactions so as not to push
a new sister too far, too fast, but the goal of CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING
is to raise the consciousness to a level where editing is no longer
necessary. If too much editing seems to be occurring, maybe some change
is in order.
18. CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING is not a confessional but intimate
secrets may be spoken of when they are relevant. It is very consciousness
raising to discover that others guilty secrets are the same
as ones own. But do not feel compelled; speak only when you
are sure you are ready.
19. Interaction among members should be underplayed. References
to conversations or events in which another member took part without
full explanation is frustrating to the rest of the group and projects
exclusiveness. This is probably why CONSCIOUSNESS
RAISING often works better among persons who see little of each other
outside the sessions. All comments should be made by an individual
to the whole group.
20. Have a clear beginning and end. Do not blend gradually
into other functions (e.g., social, political). Be clear when the
rap is over and exert no subtle pressure on women to engage in other
activities. Do not mix CONSCIOUSNESSRAISING and action. Keep
them separate. If announcements are made, they should be made at the
beginning or end so they are not mixed with the CONSCIOUSNESS
21. All of the above are guidelines, not rules. They express
what seems to have worked well for us at this time. We may change
our minds about any or all of them. We offer them to you because we
think they might make it easier for you to avoid some possible pitfalls.
But to see these tentative guidelines as inflexible rules and restrictions
would be the biggest pitfall of all.
22. And therefore we add one final point. If a sister seems
not to follow these guidelines in her behavior sometimes, try to see
the value in the deviation, Maybe the guideline is the
thing that should change. It might be a good idea to bring the matter
up for discussion before or after (not during) a session if the deviation
is frequent. People make rules; not the reverse. The reason we have
written these guidelines out is to help new groups get started and
to orient, new sisters. That is why it may be better to change or
cross out the written guidelines if they are not being followed. It
can be disturbing to read one thing and see another. In other words,
use them only if and when they work for you.
These guidelines have been drawn up by a WOMENS COLLECTIVE
and are subject to instant change by you. They would appreciate your
Reprinted with permission by
P.O. Box 86031
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15221